Geography of Tlaxcala

The smallest state, in territorial extension, of the Mexican Republic after the Federal District, is Tlaxcala with a surface of 3,991 squared km, which is equivalent to 0.2% of the country. Surrounded in a horseshoe shape by the state of Puebla, Tlaxcala connects north, east and south and shares north border with Hidalgo and on the east with west Mexico.

Situated in high lands of the volcanic center, the Tlaxcala scenery is drawn with extensive flan lands interrupted by high hills and sierras. Forests lands predominate with pine, Encino, cedar, zacaton, oyamel, and juniper trees; where there are bobwhites, hares, eagles, coyotes and hawks, species resistant to the semi-cold and humidity of the high mountains. While in the flat lands, the climate is template sub humid inhabited by magueys and cactuses, both indispensable elements of the Tlaxcala gastronomy since the pre-Columbian period. The typical fauna of this area are ¨cacomixtles¨ (a type of raccoon), rabbits, badgers and skunks. The main land elevations are the Malinche Volcano which is 4,420 meters above sea level; Cerro el Huilotepec and Cerro Huilapitzo, 3,500 meters; Cerro San Gabriel, 3,340 meters above sea level; Cerro Huintetepetl, 3,220 meters above sea level; Cerro Tlacoxolo, 3,080 masl; Cerro San Nicolas, 3,020 masl.

The path of the Atoyac River in the Balsas region occupies the major part of the state – 78%. The path of the Moctezuma River in the region of Panuco, occupies the rest of the territory. The main extensions of both of these Rivers are the Atotonilco, Atoyac, Los Llorones, La Caldera, Altzayanca, Amomoloc, El Fondon, El Capulin, Xonecuila, Zahuapan, Atocha, El Rosario, FECOAC, Las Lajas, Rojano, Santa Ana Rios, Viejo and El Bautisterio Rivers, among others. It has 6 water sources that supply water to the entity, the main one being Atlangatepec.

The Malinche National Park conserves the high volcano by giving it the category of natural protected zone.
 

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